Acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections are major reasons for hospitalizations in the United States, affecting millions of people annually

Zervos MJ et al, Epidemiology and Outcomes of Complicated Skin and Soft Tissue Infections in Hospitalized Patients. J Clin Microbiol 2012 Feb;50(2):238-45.

Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, 2011 data (
At least 2 million people in the U.S. acquire serious infections with bacteria that are resistant to one or more of the antibiotics designed to combat them.

More than 23,000 people in the U.S. die each year from antibiotic-resistant infections. Many more die from conditions complicated by an antibiotic-resistant infection.

Source: U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Antibiotic Resistance Threats in the United States, 2013.

There are 320,000 cases of gonorrhea reported to the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) each year in the U.S. – but the actual incidence is estimated at 820,000 because it is often undiagnosed and/or underreported.

The highest rates of gonorrhea affect girls between the ages of 15-24. Left untreated, gonorrhea can cause serious health problems, including chronic pelvic pain, life-threatening ectopic pregnancy, and infertility. Gonorrhea infection also increases a person’s risk of contracting and transmitting HIV.

Due to drug resistance, treatment options for gonorrhea are becoming limited.

Without effective therapies, the CDC estimates the potential for a four-fold increase in gonorrhea during the next seven years which would amount to 2.4 million infections at a cost of $780MM per year.

U.S. Centers for Disease Control Fact Sheet. STD Trends in the United States. 2011 National Data for Chlamydia, Gonorrhea, and Syphilis. Accessed September 11, 2013 at

U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Update to CDC's Sexually Transmitted Diseases Treatment Guidelines, 2010: Oral Cephalosporins No Longer a Recommended Treatment for Gonococcal Infections. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. August 10, 2012 / 61(31);590-594

Bolan GA. The Emerging Threat of Untreatable Gonococcal Infection. N Engl J Med. 2012 Feb 9;366(6):485-7.

ESKAPE pathogens are the six resistant bacteria that are among the most difficult to treat:

•  Enterococcus faecium
•  Staphylococcus aureus
•  Klebsiella pneumoniae
•  Acinetobacter baumannii
•  Pseudomonas aeruginosa
•  Enterobacter spp./E. coli

66% of all hospital infections are ESKAPE pathogens.

Source: Rice LB. Federal Funding for the Study of Antimicrobial Resistance in Nosocomial Pathogens: no ESKAPE. J. Infect. Dis.197(8), 1079-1081 (2008)
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